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Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII.The Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.The Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation (e.g.bill of exchange, double-entry bookkeeping system) to medieval fairs.

It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year.

Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553 Eastern Roman Empire 553-568 Lombard Kingdom 570–773 Carolingian Empire 774–797 Regnum Italiae 797–1001 March of Tuscany 1002–1115 Republic of Florence 1115–1532 Duchy of Florence 1532–1569 Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1569–1801 Kingdom of Etruria 1801–1807 First French Empire 1807–1815 Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1815–1859 United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860 Kingdom of Italy 1861–1946 Italian Republic 1946–present which was destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome.

The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named originally Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, which was later changed to Florentia ("flowering").

It was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica.

Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre.

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